Analysis and methodology[ edit ] Analyzing sociolinguistic variation often involves the use of statistical programs to handle its multi-variable nature. Joan Swann explains how we track changes in English. There was therefore a systematic relationship between language use, formality and social class.
Affluent Vietnamese Americans  and middle-class Japanese Americans  are shown to align to more standard English varieties, while Laotions and other Southeast Asians have more vernacular speech patterns. There have been many different perspectives[ vague ] to engaging with African American English Variation of the english language at a variety.
Such words of Scandinavian origin are concentrated in areas of the north of England that were heavily settled by Scandinavians around years ago. Of these, the study of regional variation has the longest academic history and is therefore perhaps a good place to begin.
Social psychologists have found additional meanings associated with language varieties — for instance, listeners associate English accents with different degrees of competence or social attractiveness.
This variation helps inform much about the origins and evolution of other varieties, especially African American English. The reasons for this are the following: Thus, in a mixed-gender group, gender differences tend to be less pronounced. An example of a morphosyntactic variable is the frequency of negative concord known colloquially as a double negative.
Sociolinguists concerned with grammatical and phonological features that correspond to regional areas are often called dialectologists.
In changing the way they speak in different contexts, speakers may foreground, or play down, such aspects of their identities.
More recently, researchers have become interested in urban varieties, and in documenting the variable language use of different social groups. One example of subgroup vernacular is the speech of street youth.
This is relatively rare. Sociolinguistic variables[ edit ] Studies in the field of sociolinguistics typically take a sample population and interview them, assessing the realisation of certain sociolinguistic variables.
One essential part of the methodology is to count up the number of tokens of a particular variant and compare it to the number of times the variant could have occurred.
Sociolinguists have identified relationships between language use and social categories such as class and gender. How we study language variation Updated Thursday 28th July An ever-changing language, pulsing and reforming all over the planet - how do you keep up with that?
This is the basis of the apparent-time hypothesis where age-based variation is taken as an indication of linguistic change in progress. Michael Newman and Angela Wu found that in perception tests, participants regardless of ethnic background were found to recognize Asian American, indexed by a set of distinctive features.
Research on Asian Americans in particular have noted the variation of Asian American speech. A similarly important observation is that this accommodation is usually towards the language style, not the gender of the person. This is called the "Principle of Accountability" in Tagliamonte Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Dialectologists have been able to document examples of language change. Examples for phonetic variables are: That is, speakers of a particular age will use a specific linguistic form in successive generations. These differences tend to be quantitative rather than qualitative.
Studies of bilingual speakers have also looked at how they adopt different languages, or switch between languages in different contexts. However, AAE is a rule-governed, valid language variety that adequately and uniquely expresses the collective experiences of its speakers.
Linguists have been interested in several aspects of language variation: The area of linguistics that takes account of social aspects of language is termed sociolinguistics.
They have also studied differences between national varieties — e. Some contemporary studies have focussed on how individuals vary their speech in this way. The hypothesis here is that flayed — another Scandinavian loan word - was once much more widespread but its use was gradually eroded as frightened took over.
A study of a Cardiff DJ, for instance, found that he drew on a shifting range of pronunciations, highlighting a more or less local identity, and sometimes an American influence, at different points in his show.
Dialectologists have been interested in different pronunciations, words and grammatical structures used in different parts of the country:Variations in English although in linguistic terms they refer to two different aspects of language variation.
What is a dialect? What is an accent?. Chapter 7: Language variation 1 Chapter 7 Language and variation Introduction The study of language variation is an important part of sociolinguistics, to the extent that it requires reference to social factors.
Languages vary from one place to another. Understanding English Language Variation in U.S. Schools (Multicultural Education Series) [Anne H. Charity Hudley, Christine Mallinson, James A. Banks, Walt Wolfram, William Labov] on billsimas.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
In today’s classrooms, students possess and use many culturally, ethnically, and regionally /5(9). Variation in Language The English language, a phrase heard very frequently, gives the impression that English is one uniform system of.
Written by a team of experts in diverse fields, English Language: Description, Variation and Context: • Covers both traditional topics and topics that have more recently come to prominence, notably concerning language use in context.
Language Variation and Change. the Norman French eventually switched to English. Language Families. Other Germanic languages include Dutch, German, Icelandic, Swedish, and more. All of them arose from a single language, called Proto-Germanic by linguists, which was spoken over years ago.
Proto-Germanic was never written .Download